Header image for news printout

Bangladesh: Tigers’ Sundarbans Forest habitat threatened by heedless industrialisation, says UN expert

GENEVA (31 July 2018) – Bangladesh must halt the industrialisation of the Sundarbans Reserved Forest, the largest contiguous mangrove forest in the world, says UN expert John H. Knox in his last public statement as the Special Rapporteur on human rights and the environment. 

Stretching along the Bay of Bengal, the Sundarbans is considered one of the natural wonders of the world. It has been designated under the Ramsar Convention on the protection of wetlands, and as a UNESCO World Heritage Site.

“The accelerating industrialisation of the Sundarbans threatens not only this unique ecosystem – which hosts Bengal tigers, Ganges river dolphins and other endangered species – but also poses serious risks to the human rights of the 6.5 million people whose lives, health, housing, food and cultural activities depend directly on a safe, healthy and sustainable Sundarbans forest,” said Mr. Knox.

Despite objections from UNESCO’s World Heritage Committee and the International Union for the Conservation of Nature, Bangladesh has approved more than 320 industrial projects in the area, including the massive Rampal coal-fired power plant, bypassing requirements for public participation and environmental impact assessment.  

Last year, the High Court of Bangladesh directed the State not to approve any industries within the 10-kilometre buffer zone of the Reserved Forest.  However, Government approvals have continued despite the decision.  

“The threat posed by untrammelled industrialisation of the Sundarbans is emblematic of the threats facing the environment around the world,” the Special Rapporteur said. 

“Of course the people of Bangladesh, like people all around the world, need to improve their economic well-being.  But pursuing short-term economic gain in disregard of environmental costs is chasing fools’ gold. Without a healthy environment, economic gains are unsustainable,” Mr. Knox stressed.    

“To have truly sustainable development, it is critical to protect the environment. And to ensure that environmental concerns are taken into account, governments must listen to the voices of those who are most affected by proposed industrial projects.  

“Too often, the people who raise questions about development projects are ignored or even treated as enemies of the state. But really, they should be treated as the champions of sustainable development,” the independent expert said.  

“Mangrove forests provide benefits for clean air and water that extend far beyond their immediate location. We all have an interest in the protection of the largest contiguous mangrove forest in the world,” he added. 

“But even beyond that, the Sundarbans symbolises the choice facing all of us. Will we pursue development that respects human rights and protects the environment, or will we pursue industrial projects in disregard of their environmental costs, and end up with neither a healthy environment nor a healthy economy?”   


Mr. John H. Knox (USA) was appointed by the UN Human Rights Council in 2012 as Independent Expert, and reappointed in 2015 as Special Rapporteur on the issue of human rights obligations related to the enjoyment of a safe, clean, healthy and sustainable environment. The Council requested him, a professor of international law at Wake Forest University in the United States, to clarify the application of human rights norms to environmental protection, and to identify best practices in the use of human rights obligations in environmental policy-making. At its 38th session, the Council appointed David R. Boyd, a professor at the University of British Columbia, as the next Special Rapporteur who will begin to serve in August 2018.  

The Special Rapporteurs are part of what is known as the Special Procedures of the Human Rights Council. Special Procedures, the largest body of independent experts in the UN Human Rights system, is the general name of the Council’s independent fact-finding and monitoring mechanisms. Special Procedures mandate-holders are independent human rights experts appointed by the Human Rights Council to address either specific country situations or thematic issues in all parts of the world. They are not UN staff and are independent from any government or organization. They serve in their individual capacity and do not receive a salary for their work.

UN Human Rights, country page - Bangladesh

For inquiries and media requests, please contact: Jamshid Gaziyev (+41 22 917 9183 / jgaziyev@ohchr.org);

For media inquiries related to other UN independent experts please contact Jeremy Laurence, UN Human Rights – Media Unit (+41 22 917 9383 / jlaurence@ohchr.org)

This year is the 70th anniversary of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, adopted by the UN on 10 December 1948. The Universal Declaration – translated into a world record 500 languages – is rooted in the principle that “all human beings are born free and equal in dignity and rights.” It remains relevant to everyone, every day. In honour of the 70th anniversary of this extraordinarily influential document, and to prevent its vital principles from being eroded, we are urging people everywhere to Stand Up for Human Rights: www.standup4humanrights.org