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Freedom of religion: UN expert hails Albania, but notes new challenges and unresolved issues from the past


TIRANA / GENEVA (17 May 2017) – The United Nations Special Rapporteur on freedom of religion or belief, Ahmed Shaheed, today praised the Albanian Government’s policies and practices to promote and protect interreligious harmony and co-existence in the country.

However, he noted that Albania’s multi-religious society faces many challenges, including democratic consolidation, economic and social development, as well as those related to rapid globalisation, and urged the authorities to address unresolved issues dating back to 1967, when Albania officially became an atheist state.

“Freedom of religion or belief is a practical reality in Albania, and there is much the world can learn from the Albanian experience in respecting freedom of thought, conscience and religion or belief and achieving inter-religious harmony,” Mr. Shaheed said at the end of his first fact-finding mission to the country, from 8 to 17 May.

The expert noted that Albania is a multi-religious society with a deeply troubled past where intense and systematic persecution of all religions, after the late sixties, when it effectively wiped out religious institutions in the country and extinguished all public expressions of religion by the eighties.

“Many issues related to the abuses carried out prior to the end of the authoritarian rule in 1990 remain unresolved, such as the restitution of properties seized and destroyed or repurposed by the state,” he stressed. “However, the free, voluntary and respectful expression of religious sentiment lies at the heart of the interreligious harmony and co-existence that characterizes the situation of freedom of religion or belief in Albania today.”

“The underlying circumstances and disposition that nourish and promote interfaith harmony in Albania are unique to the country, and there are many examples of good practices, in both governmental policy and communal engagement that can be instructive to the international community,” Mr. Shaheed said.

Among them, the expert noted the State’s neutral position towards the religious or belief communities in the country, and the positive, respectful and inclusive engagement of religious communities with the State. He also drew attention to a robust legal framework that guarantees the freedom of religion for all in all its dimensions; the promotion of societal attitudes of mutual respect across different religious and belief communities; and a genuine societal commitment to interfaith solidarity and cooperation.

The Special Rapporteur also noted the rapid reconstruction of the religious infrastructures and the revitalization of spiritual leadership that has taken place since 1990, and expressed hope regarding the apparent absence of political mobilization along religious fault lines. “In this regard, I recommend the Albanian authorities to speed up the restitution of properties to boost the capacity of religious communities to carry out their functions,” he said.

“The high degree of inter-religious marriage and social, political, economic and residential intermingling, as well as the very low number of reported cases of discrimination on account of religion or belief, suggest that the ethos of ‘living together’ in mutual respect and harmony was not just a slogan, but a deeply-held value for many Albanians,” the expert underscored.

“I call on the Government to continue the country’s trajectory towards democratic consolidation especially strengthening the rule of law,” the Special Rapporteur said. “I encourage it to pursue the priority dimensions of its national strategy on the prevention of violent extremism, especially introducing respectful civic education on religions, managing increasing religious diversity, and investing in social inclusion.”

During his ten-day visit, Mr. Shaheed met with members of the government, civil society, international organisations, foreign diplomats, human rights organisations, religious communities, and minority groups in a range of meetings conducted in Tirana, Kavaje, Korce, Girokaster and Shkoder.

The Special Rapporteur will present a final report on his mission to the Human Rights Council in March 2018.


Mr. Ahmed Shaheed (the Maldives) was appointed as Special Rapporteur on freedom of religion or belief by the UN Human Rights Council in 2016. Mr. Shaheed is a Visiting Professor at Essex University, UK; a former member of the Maldivian presidential Commission Investigating Corruption; and a foreign policy advisor to the President of the Maldives. He was Foreign Minister of the Maldives from 2005 to 2007 and from 2008 to 2010. He led the country’s efforts to sign and ratify all nine international human rights Conventions and to implement them in law and practice. Mr. Shaheed is the former Special Rapporteur on the situation of human rights in Iran.

The Special Rapporteurs are part of what is known as the Special Procedures of the Human Rights Council. Special Procedures, the largest body of independent experts in the UN Human Rights system, is the general name of the Council’s independent fact-finding and monitoring mechanisms that address either specific country situations or thematic issues in all parts of the world. Special Procedures’ experts work on a voluntary basis; they are not UN staff and do not receive a salary for their work. They are independent from any government or organization and serve in their individual capacity.

UN Human Rights, country page: Albania
For more information and media requests:

In Geneva (before and after the visit): Ms. Maken Tzeggai (+41 22 917 9889 / mtzeggai@ohchr.org) or write to freedomofreligion@ohchr.org
In Tirana (during the visit): Ms. Nora Kushti (+355 69 20 90 253 / nora.kushti@undp.org) or Ms. Maken Tzeggai (+41 79 444 6129 / +44 917 9889 / mtzeggai@ohchr.org)

For media inquiries related to other UN independent experts:
Xabier Celaya, UN Human Rights – Media Unit (+ 41 22 917 9383 / xcelaya@ohchr.org)

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