General Comment on children’s rights in relation to the digital environment

At its 86th session, the Committee on the Rights of the Child adopted its general comment No. 25 (2021) on children's rights in relation to the digital environment. A terminology glossary, explanatory note and child-friendly version are also available.

In March 2019, the Committee invited all interested parties to comment on the concept note of the general comment, and received 136 submissions on the concept note. In parallel, 709 children and young people in 28 countries were consulted.

In August 2020, the Committee invited all interested parties to comment on its draft general comment, and received 142 submissions from States, regional organisations, United Nations agencies, national human rights institutions and Children's Commissioners, children's and adolescent groups, civil society organisations, academics, the private sector, and other entities and individuals. The submissions are published below.


1. Australia

2. Canada

3. Chile

4. Croatia

5. Finland

6. Germany

7. Guatemala

8. Iran

9. Ireland

10. Israel

11. Italy

12. Japan

13. Kazakhstan

14. Malaysia

15. Mexico

16. Norway

17. Paraguay

18. Philippines

19. Poland

20. Republic of Korea

21. Romania

22. Saudi Arabia

23. Singapore

24. Switzerland

25. Tunisia

26. Turkey

27. United Arab Emirates

28. United Kingdom

Regional organisations and United Nations agencies

1. Council of Europe

2. European Union

3. Instituto Interamericano del NNA-OEA (SP)

4. UN Special Rapporteur on the right to privacy

5. UN Special Rapporteur on trafficking in persons, especially women and children

6. UN Special Representative of the Secretary-General on Violence Against Children



National human rights institutions and Children's Commissioners

1. Children and Young People's Commissioner Scotland

2. Défenseur des droits France (FR)

3. Defensora Derechos NNA Argentina (SP)

4. European Network of Ombudspersons for Children (ENOC)

5. National Center for the Rights of the Child Republic of Korea

6. Ombudsman for Children in Sweden

Children's and adolescent groups

1. José Manuel Wever and Elías Haig

Other stakeholders:

1. 5Rights Foundation

2. Action Innocence

3. ADIDE – Dictionnaire droits enfants

4. Al Sur

5. Alana Institute

6. Alcohol Action Ireland

7. Amandine Garde – University of Liverpool et al

8. Asociación por los Derechos Civiles

9. Association of Citizens to Combat Human Trafficking and All Forms of Trafficking and All Forms of Gender-Based Violence Serbia (ATINA)

10. Association of Heads of Independent Schools of Australia (AHISA)

11. Australian Council on Children and the Media

12. Australian Research Council – Centre of Excellence for the Digital Child

13. Barbara Reed – Monash University et al

14. Beyond Borders ECPAT Canada

15. Bris – Children Rights in Society Sweden

16. Canadian Centre for Child Protection

17. Carnegie UK Trust

18. Centre for Child Law – University of Pretoria

19. Centro Internacional Estudos Politicos – Universidad Nacional San Martin, Argentina

20. Child Online Africa

21. Child Rights Centre Serbia

22. Child Rights Coalition Asia

23. Child Rights Connect

24. Child Rights International Network (CRIN)

25. Civil Association for Equality and Justice Argentina

26. Collective Shout

27. Comisión NNA – Asociación Abogados Buenos Aires

28. Consortium Street Children & We Yone Child Foundation

29. Corporación Opción

30. Corrin Demeo – Minderoo Foundation

31. Debarati Halder – Karnavati University et al

32. Defence for Children International (DCI)

33. Defend Digital Me

34. Deutscher Kinderschutzbund - Child Protection Association

35. Digital Education Working Group – Global Privacy Assembly (French version)

36. Digital Law Center – University of Geneva

37. DKHW – German Children's Fund

38. Donna McNamara et al – Newcastle Law School

39. ECPAT Sweden



42. Emotional AI Lab

43. End Violence Partnership

44. Enhancing Children's Lives

45. eQuality Project – University of Ottawa

46. eSafety Commissioner Australia

47. Eszter Parkanyi – University of Leeds and Anthea Hucklesby – University of Birmingham

48. Facebook

49. Faith Gordon – Australian National University and Josie Cochrane – Catch22

50. First Nations Child & Family Caring Society Canada

51. Hope For Children – CRC Policy Center

52. Humanium

53. International Catholic Child Bureau

54. International Centre for Missing and Exploited Children

55. International Disability Alliance

56. Irish Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Children

57. Irit Levy-Feldman et al – Kibbutzim College

58. Islamic Research and Information Artistic & Cultural Institute(IRIC)

59. James Michael A. Uaminal

60. Jo Kaybryn – University of London

61.K. E. Smith et al – American University of Paris

62. Knowledge Media Design Institute (KMDI) – University of Toronto

63. Legal Aid & Support Centre

64. Legal Aid of Cambodia

65. Léonore Cellier – University of Lausanne and Solange Ghernaouti– Fondation SGH-Institut de Recherche Cyermonde

66. Marine Chu – Minderoo Foundation

67. Matilde Castoldi et al – American University of Paris

68. Media Monitoring Africa

69. MediaSmarts Canada

70. Minilab del Canal Pakapaka

71. Missing Children Europe

72. National Association of Persons with Disabilities of Serbia

73. National Society Prevention Cruelty to Children UK

74. NGO Consortium Finland

75. Obesity Policy Coalition

76. Paradigm Initiative (PIN)

77. Peaceful Actions Platform

78. Plan International

79. Platform for International Cooperation on Undocumented Migrants(PICUM)

80. Priyanka Tomar – Minderoo Foundation

81. ProJuventute

82. Prostasia Foundation

83. Research Center on Human Rights and Digital Technology – American University of Paris

84. S. Colburn et al – American University of Paris

85. Save the Children Spain

86. Save the Children

87. SIENNA Project

88. Simone van der Hof – Leiden University and Eva Lievens – GhentUniversity

89. SuojellaanLapsi Protect Children Finland

90. Susie Alegre

91. Swiss Foundation for the Protection of Children

92. Tetsuya Shimada

93. The Lancet and Financial Times Commission

94. UNICEF National Committee Denmark

95. UNICEF National Committee Japan

96. Wellbeing, Health and Youth University Sydney

97. Working Group on Human Rights Sub-committee Economic Exploitation Children's Data – American University of Paris

98. World Vision Australia

99. Youth Justice and Appeals Project (YJA Project) – University of District of Columbia David A. Clarke School of Law

Call for submissions

The Committee on the Rights of the Child is currently drafting a general comment on children's rights in relation to the digital environment.

In March 2019, the Committee invited all interested parties to comment on the concept note of the general comment. Submissions on the concept note can be found here.

The Committee now invites all interested stakeholders to comment on its draft general comment. After due consideration of inputs provided, the Committee will decide on the contents of the final version of the general comment.

All comments:

  • Should be submitted in one of the official languages of the Committee: English, French or Spanish;
  • Should be in one concise and focused document indicating precisely the paragraphs to which comments are being made and must not exceed 3,000 words;
  • Should be submitted electronically in WORD format to the following email address:;
  • Will not be accepted if they do not follow the above requirements;
  • Will not be translated;
  • Shall be posted on the CRC webpage devoted to this draft general comment.

The deadline for submissions is 15 November 2020. No submissions received after this deadline will be considered or posted on the webpage.

The current version of the draft general comment can be found here.

Appel à commentaires

Le Comité des droits de l'enfant est en train d'élaborer une observation générale sur les droits de l'enfant en relation avec l'environnement numérique.

En mars 2019, le Comité a invité toutes les parties intéressées à faire part de leurs commentaires sur la note succincte de l'observation générale. Les commentaires sur la note succincte peuvent être trouvés ici.

Le Comité invite à présent toutes les parties intéressées à faire part de leurs observations sur le projet actuel d'observation générale. Après avoir dûment pris en considération les contributions fournies, le Comité décidera du contenu de la version finale de l'Observation générale.

Tous les commentaires:

  • Doivent être soumis dans l'une des langues officielles du Comité: anglais, français ou espagnol;
  • Doivent figurer dans un document concis et précis, qui indique précisément les paragraphes sur lesquels portent les commentaires et qui ne doit pas dépasser 3000 mots;
  • Doivent être soumis électroniquement au format WORD à l'adresse électronique suivante:;
  • Ne seront pas acceptés s'ils ne respectent pas les exigences ci-dessus;
  • Ne seront pas traduits;
  • Seront affichés sur la page web du Comité dédiée à ce projet d'observation générale.

Les commentaires doivent être envoyés avant le 15 novembre 2020. Aucune soumission reçue après cette date limite ne sera prise en considération ou publiée sur la page web.

La version actuelle du projet de l'Observation générale peut être trouvée ici (disponible uniquement en anglais).

Convocatoria para la entrega de comentarios

El Comité de los Derechos del Niño está redactando un comentario general sobre los derechos del niño en relación con el entorno digital.

En marzo de 2019, el Comité invitó a todas las partes interesadas a formular observaciones sobre la nota conceptual de la observación general. Los comentarios sobre la nota conceptual se pueden encontrar aquí.

El Comité invita ahora a todas las partes interesadas a comentar sobre su proyecto de comentario general. Luego de la debida consideración de los aportes proporcionados, el Comité decidirá el contenido de la versión final de la Observación general.

Todos los comentarios:

  • Deben presentarse en uno de los idiomas de trabajo del Comité: inglés, francés o español;
  • Deben estar en un documento conciso y enfocado que indique con precisión los párrafos a los que se están haciendo comentarios y no debe exceder las 3.000 palabras;
  • Deben enviarse electrónicamente en formato WORD a la siguiente dirección de correo electrónico:;
  • No serán aceptados si no siguen los requisitos anteriores;
  • No serán traducidos;
  • Se publicarán en la página web del Comité dedicada a este proyecto de la observación general.

Los comentarios deben enviarse antes del 15 de noviembre de 2020. No se considerarán ni se publicarán en la página web las sumisiones recibidas después de esta fecha.

La versión actual del proyecto de la Observación General se puede encontrar aquí (disponible sólo en inglés).

Country-specific information